Zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin, Nova Scotia.

The extracts were then powdered

using an agate mortar and pestle. Nova Scotian

Institute of Science, Transactions and Proceedings, v. 1989; Stevens 1987; Olsen 1989). Schlische and Olsen

(1989) also described extensive outcrops of “rubblized” basalt

(Fig. 415-420.

Previous studies suggested that the zeolite formation in the North

Mountain Basalt was the result of burial metamorphism (e.g. Zeolites are also present as irregular veins in the pug of a few

major faults. Minerals associated with the

zeolite minerals include quartz and other forms of silica (e.g.,

chalcedony, amethyst, agate, jaspar, opal), malachite, mica, barite, and

calcite.

Temperatures of zeolite formation

Where columnar joints in basalt have been progressively widened,

they commonly filled with neptunian dykes of red sandstone and mudstone

(Fig. In the easternmost McCoy Brook Formation basin,

an irregular silicified body (5 m in length, 1 m thick) appears to have

replaced permeable polymictic coarse litharenite. Slickensides in the basalt cataclasite are developed in

quartz and celadonite.

ACKERMANN, R.V., SCHLISCHE, R.W., OLSEN, P.E. b.d. Book privately

published, 37 p.

GESNER, A. Basaltic cataclasite contains only

rare zeolites, as at Wasson Bluff. 0.21 0.21 3.28

[Na.sub.2]O 14.18 16.00 15.41 15.41 12.41

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Comparison is made with

assemblages at Arlington Quarry on North Mountain, where the dominant

zeolite minerals are heulandite (sensu stricto) and stilbite. (1995), the

Blomidon Formation contains a chaotic mudstone which can be traced for

35 km in the Fundy Rift Basin. “Heulandite”, mesolite, stilbite,

thomsonite, natrolite, tetranatrolite, and epistilbite have been

analysed from both the North Shore and Arlington Quarry and can

therefore be compared.

Minerals present

ADAMS, G.C. b.d. Fe, Mg, and K were

not detected.

The Wasson Bluff section is the best area on the North Shore to

study the geological events related to the formation of the

zeolite-minerals (Figs. 0.92 1.56

[Na.sub.2]O 4.39 15.56 16.19 15.06 14.92

[K.sub.2]O 1.76 b.d. 90 94 142 146

Locality Wasson Bluff Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.94 58.02 59.24 59.01

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 21.93 22.05 22.27 21.95

CaO b.d. b.d.

[Na.sub.2]O 5.18 5.45 12.06 13.02

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Clinoptilolite has

Si/Al4, whereas heulandite (sensu stricto) has values between 2.5

and 3. 151 152 22 24 138

Locality Caped’Or Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.75 49.41 48.60 48.39 48.83

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.26 26.40 26.09 26.09 26.02

CaO 1.82 b.d. 4a),

ranging from colourless to green to white.

GREENOUGH, J.D., JONES, L.M., MOSSMAN, D.J. Elsewhere

on North Mountain, mordenite, natrolite, and laumontite have been

confirmed. The McCoy Brook Formation

sedimentary rocks are host to, or cut by veins of,

“heulandite”, chabazite, stellerite, and silica minerals. Associated

minerals are quartz, chert, other forms of silica, mica, chlorite,

magnetite, and galena. 2, 3). The “heulandite” is present

in the form of rosettes. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.08 27.19 27.02 27.10

Al 9.15 8.81 9.19 9.30

Ca 3.19 3.30 3.68 3.20

Na 1.42 1.83 0.75 0.85

K 0.41 0.37 0.25 0.45

Si/Al 2.96 3.09 2.94 2.91

E% 11.4 0.1 9.9 20.8

Mineral Gmelinite “Heulandite”

Sample W193 W108

Analysis No. 36, pp. Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 51.72 52.41 55.29 56.65

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.67 16.05 16.72 16.20

CaO 0.77 0.62 7.93 8.11

[Na.sub.2]O 9.02 8.44 1.06 0.59

[K.sub.2]O 4.75 4.73 b.d. Zeolite samples were collected on

the east side of the headland and are common in joints, veins, and vugs.

Horseshoe Cove

“Heulandite” from Arlington Quarry is generally pink,

earthy, and massive, and shows three clusters in terms of Si/Al ratio at

~4.5, ~3.1, and ~2.8 (Fig. 1828. 6).

Wasson Bluff

Editorial responsibility: Sandra M. Electron-microprobe

analyses were conducted at the Regional Microprobe Centre at Dalhousie

University and the XRD analyses at the Geological Survey of Canada

(Atlantic). b.d. Rosettes

of quartz and either “heulandite” or stellerite appear to have

precipitated in situ in the muddy matrix of talus and debris-flow

deposits within a few metres of these faults.

Zeolite identification is based on hand-specimen identification,

electron microprobe analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.

Two-hundred samples from the North Shore of the Minas Basin and seventy

samples from Kings County have been studied.

DISCUSSION

Chabazite and stilbite are abundant among our studied samples;

“heulandite”, barrerite, epistilbite, and natrolite are rare.

We have not identified thomsonite, reported by Booth (1994). (hons) thesis, Acadia University,

Wolfville, N.S., 48 p.

Copyright 2002 Gale, Cengage Learning. The Scots Bay Formation,

Nova Scotia, Canada, a Jurassic carbonate lake with silica-rich

hydrothermal springs. According to Ackermann et al. Analyses of stilbite

from the two areas shows similar Si/Al and (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) ratios (Fig.

6). The associated minerals

include quartz, calcite, and barite.

On a Si/Al – (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) plot (Fig. 139

Locality Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.72

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.35

CaO 1.94

[Na.sub.2]O 13.98

[K.sub.2]O b.d.

BaO

SrO

Total 90.99

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 0.29

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. 72 80 80 80 80

Si 28.05 24.47 24.46 24.61 24.41

Al 7.80 15.60 15.59 15.40 15.49

Ca 1.61 0.16 b.d. Basalt exposed on the

North Shore shows the same stratigraphic succession as the main North

Mountain outcrop on the south side of the Bay of Fundy, but tends to be

more tectonized and altered (Greenough et al. Ackermann et al. Chemical composition of hydrothermal fluids was likely

different between North Mountain and the North Shore, wilh fluids in the

latter area less sodic. b.d. Where faulting and

sedimentation was synchronous with zeolite formation, as at Wasson

Bluff, geological field evidence can be used to determine the sequence

of formation of secondary minerals.

Silica minerals including quartz to “heulandite”

Chemical analyses of zeolite minerals from Arlington Quarry are

given in Table 2. New petrographic evidence in Pe-Piper (2000), such as

the repetitive zonation in some amygdales and the amount of metal

precipitates, suggest a hydrothermal origin. With falling temperature the crystallizing solution

became enriched in Na, and sodic zeolite minerals, such as natrolite,

began to crystallize. A few

zeolite veins cross-cut both the basalt and neptunian dykes, but are

much thinner in the dyke sediments (Fig. 3.68

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 1). As a result, only limited crystallization of Na-rich

zeolites (natrolite group) took place in the North Shore occurrences,

and the observed zeolites show a broad scatter in Na, Ca, Mg, and K

(Fig. 80 80 80 80 80

Si 24.43 24.55 24.53 24.49 24.52

Al 15.52 15.46 15.52 15.62 15.43

Ca 0.98 b.d. We thank D.J.W Piper for help in the field and for reviewing

the paper. Chabazite

shows a wide range of compositions from almost zero to 65% Ca+Mg.

Stilbite and epistilbite show a wider range in K content than that

reported by Pe-Piper (2000) from Morden. 2a, 2c, 2e;

Fig. 0.29

Total 85.17 86.01 85.38 87.25

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. The

star-like crystal habit is distinctive.

X-ray diffraction and electron microprobc analyses show Ihe

following assemblages to be present in basalt flows and overlying siliciclastic sedimentary rocks along the Norlh Shore of the Minas

Basin: Five Islands — chabazite and stilbite are dominant, also

“heulandite” and barrerite; Two Islands — analcime is

dominant, gmelinite, chabazite, stilbite, and natrolile; Wasson

Bluff–chabazite, slilbite and “heulandite” are dominant, also

herschelite, barrerite, stellerite, analcime, wairakite, natrolite,

clinoptilolite, and thomsonite; Parlridge Island — chabazite and

stilbite are dominant, also analcime, epistilbite, natrolite, barrerite,

and “heulandite”; Cape Sharp — chabazite, stilbite,

barrerite, stellerite, and “heulandite”; Horseshoe Cove –

“heulandite” and stilbite; Western Cape d’Or — analcime,

stilbite, natrolite, and mesolite are dominant, also stellerite,

?epistilbite, barrerite, scolecite, chabazite, “heulandite”,

wairakite, tetranatrolite and laumontite. The mineralogy of Nova Scotia: a report to the

provincial government. III,

New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland.

Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 8, 106 p.

Kotz, J.C., PURCELL, K.F. b.d.

Total 86.19 85.93 82.51 85.25 84.57

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 1994. 0.49 0.82

Na 4.00 15.02 15.41 14.38 14.24

K 1.18 b.d. Chemical variation

between individual zeolite minerals is likely also be a result of

different fluid composition of the hydrothermal waters responsible for

zeolite formation.

The zeolite minerals identified on the North Shore of the Minas

Basin include “heulandite”, chabazite, gmelinite, analcime,

wairakite, stilbite, barrerite, natrolite, scolecite, mesolite,

thomsonite, laumontite, stellerite, tetranatrolite, and epistilbite. Des nodules de quartz et d’

INTRODUCTION

STEVENS, G.R. Olsen and P.J.W.

Gore, Field trip guidebook T351, 28th Geological Congress, pp. Because of the difficulty of

discriminating accurately heulandite from clinoptilolite, we use the

term “heulandite” to include both minerals.

RESUME

COMPARISON OF NORTH SHORE WITH KINGS COUNTY

The basalt has well developed columnar joints, some of which appear

to have been rotated by local fault movement (Schlische and Olsen 1989).

Neptunian dykes of fine red sandstone and mudstone occupy joints between

cooling columns and sinuous fractures in the basalt (Figs. At

Five Islands, the North Mountain Basalt is highly faulted (Greenough et

al. 0.87 b.d. b.d. b.d. b.d.

Si/Al 3.60 1.57 1.57 1.60 1.58

E% -7.1 1.7 1.1 0.3 -2.5

Mineral Natrolite Tetranatrolite

Sample Z270 Z310 Z270

Analysis No. b.d.

Si/Al 2.63 2.77 2.81 2.97

E% -22.0 -20.3 3.5 3.1

Mineral Stilbite

Sample Z401

Analysis No. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.24 27.55 27.18 27.61

Al 9.37 9.17 9.46 8.79

Ca 2.56 2.64 2.40 3.04

Na 1.02 0.37 0.65 0.67

K 0.79 0.66 1.46 0.45

Si/Al 2.91 3.00 2.87 3.14

E% 35.3 45.4 37.1 21.9

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample W94 153

Analysis No. Dept. (The outcrops are

inaccessible in the cliff, but have been sampled from modern talus).

The zeolites identified in the Five Island area are chabazite,

“heulandite”, barrerite, and stilbite. 48 48 48 48

Si 17.8 18.17 18.11 18.31

Al 6.16 5.8 5.86 5.72

Fe

Mg

Ca 2.78 2.79 2.7 2.64

Na 0.73 0.34 0.58 0.18

K b.d. Jurassic basalts of the northern Bay of Fundy

region, Nova Scotia. b.d. Scolecite has been identified only by XRD and some

massive samples described as scolecite on the basis of hand specimen

character were identified as mesolite by XRD and electron microprobe.

MERTZ, K.A., JR., HUBERT, J.F. The crystal chemistry of mordenites.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. b.d.

SrO b.d. 0.12

Si/Al 3.13 3.08 3.15 3.04

E% -2.2 -1.5 0.6 -2.0

Mineral Stilbite

Sample Z31

Analysis No. b.d. 0.62 b.d. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 26.96 26.95 27.12 27.16 27.16

Al 8.86 8.79 8.99 9.00 8.94

Fe

Mg

Ca 4.25 4.32 3.85 3.68 3.71

Na 1.08 1.09 b.d. B.Sc. As a result, average

(Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) is lower (Fig. b.d. b.d. b.d. Within individual crystals Si, Al, Ca,

Na, and [H.sub.2]O decrease from core to rim. 0.51 b.d. b.d. 1.25 1.06 1.70

BaO b.d.

SrO b.d.

Total 83.13 86.57 85.06 82.82

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 4e).

PE-PIPER, G. The first zeolite minerals to

crystallize in Kings County samples are rich in Ca (i.e.

“heulandite”) and we infer that Na was not accommodated in the

crystal structure of the crystallizing zeolites because fluid

temperature was too high. Chabazite is the dominant

zeolite, occurring most commonly in veins. b.d. b.d.

Ca 5.23 5.22 8.15

Na 4.49 4.49 b.d.

K b.d. 715 721 722 723

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 47.08 66.38 65.26 63.85

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 26.40 12.37 12.73 12.77

[FeO.sup.t] b.d.

MgO b.d.

CaO 2.59 6.35 6.62 6.57

[Na.sub.2]O 12.40 0.19 0.22 0.19

[K.sub.2]O b.d. 80 80 80

Si 24.28 24.3 24.49

Al 15.97 15.96 15.25

Fe b.d. b.d.

Total 84.42 83.55 84.89

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 1965-1976.

Introduction

Arlington Quarry (Fig. 3.8

K b.d. b.d. Considerable

discrepancy exists in the zeolite mineral assemblages in each area as

reported by different authors.

MILLER, L.J. The zeolites of Nova

Scotia. These representative spots were analysed by a

JEOL-733 with four wavelength spectrometers and a Tracor Northern 145-eV

energy dispersive system detector at the Department of Earth Sciences,

Dalhousie University. b.d. 2d). Zeolite minerals in Ihe McCoy Brook Formation sedimentary

rocks are restricted to a few discrete zones, including major faults.

Massive veins within faults consist principally of chabazite. This area thus provides the opportunity to

determine the relative timing of zeolite mineral formation, in

relationship to synchronous faulting.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Tetranatrolite resembles natrolite and was identified only by

chemical analysis.

PASSAGLIA, E. Olsen and P.J.W. Nevertheless,

significant silicic alteration affects the upper part of the McCoy Brook

Formation containing polymictic pebbly litharenite. 0.2 1.37

Total 82.54 85.15 89.49 88.6 84.02

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d.

CaO 12.75 1.43 b.d. On the North Shore of the Minas Basin, Mertz and

Hubert (1990) described only gypsum precipitation. b.d. 0.12 0.13 0.16

Si/Al 1.51 4.55 4.35 4.25

E% 5.2 2.4 0.8 1.7

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample Z30 Z31

Analysis No. European Journal of Mineralogy, v. In: Tectonic, depositional, and

paleoecological history of Early Mesozoic rift basins, eastern North

America. Veins of zeolite

cutting basalt are also recognised in basalt clasts in the talus-slope

deposits (Fig. 3). Peak positions were refined

using the algorithm of Appleman and Evans (1973).

. 48 48 48 72

Si 16.37 16.46 16.00 29.39

Al 7.13 7.15 6.98 6.71

Ca 1.40 1.75 1.53 2.78

Na 6.20 5.09 7.94 0.49

K 0.11 0.13 0.06 0.26

Si/Al 2.30 2.30 2.29 4.38

E% -21.7 -17.9 -36.9 6.5

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample W102 W88 W120

Analysis No. 80 80 96 96

Si 22.13 22.18 33.70 33.38

Al 17.86 17.64 14.36 14.63

Ca 6.32 6.40 b.d. (1995) inferred the unit

was formed by subsidence and collapse of a metre thick evaporite-rich

bed by groundwater. Analcime from Wasson Bluff is commonly

present as well formed trapezohedra growing on other crystals such as

twinned heulandite.

Five Islands

Epistilbite is not easy to identify in hand specimen and most of

the epistilbite identifications are from XRD and electron microprobe

chemical analyses. 1985. 0.11 0.16 1.7

Na 13.78 15.41 15.08 14.88 12.09

K b.d. b.d.

BaO 1.56 1.80 b.d. b.d. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.

32, pp. (1992), and Booth (1994). 7) and by XRD and electron microprobe. b.d. 97 98 161 162

Locality Wasson Bluff Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 55.14 57.42 59.69 57.08

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.65 18.34 19.49 19.18

CaO 8.70 7.66 8.58 8.58

[Na.sub.2]O 4.59 3.53 2.58 3.32

[K.sub.2]O 1.03 0.86 0.68 0.85

BaO

SrO

Total 87.11 87.81 91.02 89.01

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 80 80 80 80

Si 24.21 24.11 24.35 20.68

Al 15.53 15.65 15.37 18.93

Fe b.d. 3.14 0.54

Total 85.03 84.59 85.63 86.01

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 3.08

[Na.sub.2]O 3.66 14.49 15.35 11.76

[K.sub.2]O b.d. La

temperarure de cristallisation de Ia zeolite semble avoir ete elevee

dans Ia carriere Arlington, ou l’ heulandite et la

stilbite se sont cristallisees en integrant peu de Na dans la structure

de leurs cristaux. 2e). Zeolites at Wasson Bluff commonly

occur in basalt, conglomerate with basalt clasts, and less commonly in

sandstone, but on average make up no more than 3% of the overall rock.

The zeolites are mainly found in veins, less commonly in cavities and

the amygdales and groundmass of basalt, and only in a few fault zones.

Sinistral strike-slip movement along the Portapique Fault, a few hundred

metres north of the coastal outcrops, formed small transtensional

grabens in which McCoy Brook Formation clastic sediments accumulated.

The predominant lithology in the lower part of the McCoy Brook Formation

is eolian dune sandstone, but lacustrine mudstone and talus slope

debris-flow breccia of matrix-supported basalt clasts (Tanner and Hubert

1991) are also present. Stilbite, “heulandite”, and analcime are

common, natrolite and thomsonite are rare. b.d. Journal reviews by John Greenough, Greg McHone and David

McMullin substantially improved this paper.

In general, Ca ions can crystallize out of aqueous solution at much

higher temperatures than Na and K (Kotz and Purcell 1987, p. Most of the studies of

zeolite minerals on the North Shore were conducted before the

development of analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction and

electron microprobe chemical analyses, and even the more recent studies

have not included electron microprobe chemical analyses. 5, p. b.d. Na-rich zeolites

are represented by natrolite, tetranatrolite, and gmelinite. 4b). 3). b.d.

BaO

SrO

Total 87.20 87.13 91.53 92.24

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. b.d. 1995). 1922. It can also be massive, white, and dull.

Heulandite (sensu stricto) to clinoptilolite to stilbite

Cape d’Or

REFERENCES

GILPIN, E. b.d.

Na 5.29 5.58 14.12 14.59

K b.d. b.d.

Si/Al 1.52 1.52 1.55

E% 6.9 6.9 -6.5

Mineral Scolecite Thomsonite

Sample Z23 Z33

Analysis No. b.d. b.d. Zeolite

veins cut the talus-slope deposits and zeolites also fill vugs in the

matrix. Amygdaloidal basalt flows have amygdale fillings principally of celadonite and silica minerals, with minor

amounts of zeolite. 1992. The overall

order of crystallization from earliest to latest is: mica to quartz +

amethyst + other forms of silica to chabazite to stilbite to calcite.

Other North Shore localities are described from east to west. A study of the zeolites of the North Mountain

Basalt in the core GAV-77-3. 857-873.

Partridge Island

SUMMARY OF DIAGNOSTIC FIELD APPEARANCE OF THE VARIOUS ZEOLITE

MINERALS

Sixteen zeolite minerals have been identified along the North Shore

of the Minas Basin. Stop 11.2, Five Islands Provincial Park. Canadian

Journal of Earth Sciences, v. 15-27

DEWET, C.C.B., HUBERT, J.F. 0.50

MgO b.d. Clasts in the talus-slope and debris-flow deposits

(Fig. The Minas Basin, at the eastern end of the

Bay of Fundy, is a half-graben with the master fault on the north side

showing strong left-lateral movement synchronous with basalt extrusion

(Withjack et al. 1989. b.d.

Si/Al 1.58 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.59

E% -1.4 0.3 1.4 2.8 -1.2

Mineral Tetranatrolite

Sample Z270

Analysis No. Nine types of

zeolite were identified: epistilbite, scolecite, stilbite, stellerite,

heulandite (sensu stricto), clinoptilolite, mesolite, thomsonite, and

rare analcime (Table 2). b.d. The natrolite and tetranatrolite from Arlington Quarry in

hand specimen do not differ from those from North Shore and their

chemical characteristics are also similar (Fig. b.d. 72 72 72 72

Si 27.26 27.15 27.34 27.04

Al 8.7 8.82 8.68 8.91

Fe

Mg

Ca 4.12 4.13 4.15 4.24

Na 0.64 0.7 0.32 0.48

K b.d. 61, pp. Gesner (1836) reported that

a mass of stilbite of over 200 lbs fell from a cliff in 1834. b.d. 1989. 72 48 48 72

Si 27.26 18.43 18.27 27.78

Al 8.87 5.82 5.94 7.86

Ca 3.91 1.83 1.68 2.15

Na 0.53 0.68 1.33 3.99

K b.d. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, v.

27, pp. These thin

flows are not recognised on North Mountain and appear to be correlative with the flows at Wasson Bluff.

Chabazite is usually vitreous and salmon pink, yellow, or

colourless. Identifying zeolites in the field was

difficult because commonly more than one zeolite mineral was present in

any one hand specimen. In contrast, on the

North Shore the chemical data presented in this paper indicate that Na

was readily accommodated in the crystal structure of crystallizing

zeolites, which we interpret as a result of crystallization at lower

temperatures. A slurry of each of the powdered

samples was created before mounting of the sample on a glass disk.

Methanol was used in the slurry because it evaporates quickly and it

does not react with zeolite minerals. 0.44

Ca 8.29 8.31 8.24 7.7

Na b.d. In: Poole, W.J.

(ed), Geology of parts of the Atlantic Provinces. The trap minerals of Nova Scotia. Zeolites

of the North Mountain Basalt, Bay of Fundy – Minas Basin region, Nova

Scotia. 72

Si 26.92

Al 9.08

Fe

Mg

Ca 4.18

Na 0.71

K b.d.

Si/Al 2.97

E% 0.1

Notes: WC = Woodworth Cove

AV = Amethyst Cove

KONTAK, D.J. 0.28

K b.d. Both the field and

analytical data in this study have been substantially updated since a

preliminary report by Miller (1997).

Zeolites of the North Shore of the Minas Basin

Stilbite commonly occurs as vitreous sheaves or plates (Fig. b.d. Minerals associated with the zeolites include

green celadonite, malachite, quartz and other forms of silica, barite,

calcite, and fluoroapophyllite. b.d. (1992), except that we did

not identify scolecite and epistilbite. Mode of occurrence, chemical variation and

genesis of mordenite and other associated zeolites from Morden, Nova

Scotia, Canadian Mineralogist, v.38, pp. Within

individual crystals, Ca and K generally decrease from core to rim,

whereas Na and Si increase.

“Heulandite” is generally vitreous and colourless to pink

to reddish orange (Fig. b.d.

BaO

SrO

Total 93.14 93.68 94.92 94.38

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 1990. 0.12 0.85 1.03 0.84

Si/Al 3.04 3.29 3.02 3.02 3.04

E% -7.5 -10.8 5.2 7.2 4.9

Mineral Stilbite Stellerite

Sample Z33 Z40

Analysis No. 1989.

Petrochemical and stratigraphic aspects of the North Mountain basalt

from the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada. 3). 1995). 731 732 735 756 799

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 57.82 59.38 61.86 61.47 57.9

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.94 16.57 17.8 17.05 16.41

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 8.11 8.14 9.04 8.83 7.85

[Na.sub.2]O 0.67 0.19 0.79 0.51 0.49

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. Greenough et al.

(1989) showed that basalt at Five Islands, Partridge Island, and Gape

d’Or conformably overlying the Blomidon Formation is

strarigraphically equivalent to the lower lava unit on North Mountain.

They suggested that at McKay Head (not sampled in this study), a thick

flow equivalent to the upper lava unit on North Mountain is overlain by

several thinner flows and then by the McCoy Brook Formation. 96 96 24 24

Si 34.20 34.40 8.55 8.55

Al 13.35 13.17 3.24 3.25

Ca 5.12 5.59 1.37 1.21

Na 4.38 3.21 1.19 1.41

K 0.53 0.51 0.17 0.19

Si/Al 2.56 2.61 2.64 2.63

E% -1.0 -11.6 -20.6 -19.2

Mineral Chabazite Stilbite

Sample W166 Z310

Analysis No. b.d. 48 48 72 72 72

Si 17.38 17.78 27.17 27.15 27.03

Al 6.65 6.24 8.71 8.79 8.83

Fe

Mg

Ca 3.08 2.92 2.9 3.44 4.15

Na 0.37 0.33 0.94 1.54 1.1

K b.d. b.d. Some of the thinner neptunian dykes

appear to be silicified (Schlische and Olsen 1989). B.Sc. 174

Locality Arlington

Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 57.72

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.51

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 8.37

[Na.sub.2]O 0.78

[K.sub.2]O b.d.

Total 83.38

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 1). 72 72 72 72 72

Si 27.18 27.14 26.89 27.12 26.97

Al 8.83 8.93 9.12 8.87 9.01

Fe

Mg

Ca 4.09 3.99 4.21 4.18 3.92

Na 0.61 0.17 0.67 0.44 0.44

K b.d. La composition chimique des fluides hydrotbermaux du North

Mountain etait vraisemblablement differente de celle des fluides de Ia

cote nord, les fluides de cette derniere region etant moms sodiques. b.d.

Total 84.88 85.66 85.28 87.25

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 1995. b.d. 21).

Barrerite is generally vitreous, massive, and colourless to pink

(Fig. b.d. Sedimentology, v. 947 948 949 852

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 58.21 60.36 59.47 56.64

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.76 15.78 15.63 16.49

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 7.97 7.96 7.71 8.67

[Na.sub.2]O 0.55 0.52 0.39 1.63

[K.sub.2]O 0.31 0.33 0.3 b.d.

Total 83.8 84.95 83.5 83.43

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. The beam operated with 15kv and 15nA and a beam

diameter of 10 [micro]m. b.d.

SrO 0.69 0.54 4.18 1.91

Total 82.58 83.01 86.06 83.07

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. The dominant vesicle fillings in basalt are celadonite

and silica minerals, with minor “heulandite”, chabazite, and

analcime. In the North Mountain Basalt, the most prominent

zeolitization is in the columnar-jointed basalt and irregular veins and

vugs, which is a response to the progressive deformation of the basalt

in a strike-slip, pull-apart setting.

Thomsonite is generally massive or fibrous, beige to off-white.

The zeolite minerals found on the North Shore of the Minas Basin

differ from those in Kings County and elsewhere on the south coast of

the Bay of Fundy in the presence of wairakite and barrerite, and in the

abundance of chabazite, which is rare on the south coast. Celadonite, silica minerals, “heulandite,”

analcime, and chabazite predominate in amygdales in the basalt flows and

in basalt clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation, suggesting that these

minerals were “early” (Fig. 152-159.

Others have made passing observations on the distribution of

zeolites in the Wasson Bluff section. b.d.

Mg b.d. The host rock is mostly locally vesicular basalt (some

joints filled with red sandstone) overlain by massive basalt. b.d.

Si/Al 2.61 2.62 3.00 3.11 3.05

E% -2.0 -2.3 6.5 -1.8 1.0

Mineral “Heulandite” Epistilbite Barrerite

Sample 153 W166 W176 W168

Analysis No. of

Commerce, NTIS Document, PB-21188.

MINERAL CHEMISTRY

Analcime is generally vitreous and granular (Fig. 2000. 781 783 812 814

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.73 57.3 59.71 59.68

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 18.2 17.69 16.29 16.43

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 9.4 8.97 6.01 8.35

[Na.sub.2]O 0.7 0.63 0.48 1.01

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Most crystals are well formed and easily identified, but

the massive form resembles massive heulandite, making positive

identification by eye difficult. 1989. 1965. They also described irregularities in the top of one basalt flow

developed before the subsequent flow was deposited that they ascribed to

faulting during extrusion of the basalt succession.

BARTH-WIRSCHING, U., HOLLER, H. b.d. Stop 11.3, Wasson Bluff.

Structural Geology and Stratigraphy. In:

Tectonic, depositional, and paleoecological history of Early Mesozoic

rift basins, eastern North America. b.d. 72 72 72 72

Si 26.12 26.43 27.36 27.69

Al 9.88 9.69 8.8 8.79

Fe

Mg

Ca 9.4 8.97 2.95 4.06

Na 0.7 0.63 0.43 0.89

K b.d. 5).

GEOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN ZEOLITE MINERALOGY

OLSEN, P.E. Tetranatrolite, stellerite, barrerite,

scolecite, and wairakite have also been identified. 58 114 116 119 149

Locality Partridge Is. b.d. 1.84 0.31

Si/Al 2.64 2.73 3.09 3.08

E% -0.2 2 7.8 -5.7

Mineral Epistilbite

Sample Z21

Analysis No. The difference in chemical

composition of zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin

and from Kings County may be the result of a difference in temperature

of formation and/or different fluid composition.

The purpose of this paper is: 1) to accurately identify zeolite

minerals of the North Shore of the Minas Basin using up-to-date

analytical techniques, thus establishing both their stratigraphic and

regional distribution; 2) to determine the order of crystallization of

zeolite minerals in each area and hence the events of zeolite formation;

3) to examine the chemical mineralogy of zeolite minerals of

representative samples and in particular zeolite species from these

areas with no published chemical analyses; 4) to establish the

differences in chemistry of some identified zeolite species between the

North Shore and the Arlington Quarry (a representative area of the type

North Mountain basalt in Kings County) (Fig. b.d. Zeolites of the Bay of Fundy. The oldest basaltic clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation

contain a similar mineral assemblage (including sparse

“heulandite” and chabazire) in amygdales, suggesting that the

oldest zeolitization predated erosion of the clasts at fault scarps in

the basalt. b.d.

Si/Al 2.17 2.23 2.26 2.28

E% 0.5 -1.5 1.0 -0.6

Mineral Wairakite Wairakite

Sample Z51 Z675

Analysis No. b.d. b.d.

BaO

SrO

Total 88.29 86.71 87.62 87.16

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. The dominant zeolite minerals in Kings

County are “heulandite” and stilbite.

In summary, the work of Schlische and Olsen (1989) showed that

extrusion of North Mountain Basalt and deposition of the immediately

overlying sediments of the McCoy Brook Formation took place during

active strike-slip faulting and the formation of a small transtensional

graben (Fig. Some authors have

compared the zeolite assemblages to those resulting from burial

metamorphism in Iceland (Adams 1980), but more recent work on North

Mountain shows them to result from hydrothermal circulation (De Wet and

Hubert 1989; Pe-Piper 2000). b.d.

MgO b.d. 1996. b.d. 2a). Most basalt in the area is massive, but

considerable amounts are amygdaloidal. Basalt breccias and

conglomerates in the Lower Jurassic McCoy Brook Formation, Fundy Basin,

Nova Scotia: differentiation of talus and debris-flow deposits. This differentce is also

supported by the presence of mordenite in some areas of Kings County

(Pe-Piper 2000; Kontak 2000).

Mesolite is generally milky white and fibrous with fibres larger

than those of natrolite. 65-77.

SCHLISCHE, R.W. b.d. 0.2

Total 81.08 81.99 80.65 80.35

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. The first four

minerals are the most common. Stilbite generally has a Si/Al ratio between 2.8 and 3.1.

Chabazite of the North Shore has a wide range of compositions, but

within the range reported by Gottardi and Galli (1985). 190 191 99 101 102

Locality WassonBluff CapeSharp

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 55.44 55.17 57.68 59.75 59.12

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.99 17.83 16.33 16.30 16.43

CaO 8.11 7.98 7.79 8.46 8.28

[Na.sub.2]O 0.49 0.59 0.71 0.74 0.74

[K.sub.2]O 2.60 2.56 b.d. 0.74 0.99 b.d.

Total 85.32 85.98 82.23 82.74 82.65

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. We have analysed gmelinite and

analcime, with gmelinite having been the first to crystallize.

ABSTRACT

Zeolites occur only locally in the McCoy Brook Formation. 1991. In contrast,

individual crystals from the North Shore show Si and Ca increasing from

core to rim, and Al and Na decreasing.

Eighty-seven representative samples from the North Shore and eleven

samples from Kings County were selected for X-ray diffraction. b.d. (hons) thesis, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax,

N.S., 129 p.

APPLEMAN, D.E., EVANS, H,T.,JR 1973.Job 9214: indexing and

least squares refinement of powder diffraction data. 777 778 843 844 724

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.85 58.88 57.23 57.28 57.34

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 18.45 17.52 15.57 15.79 15.89

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 9.4 9.01 7.67 6.8 8.22

[Na.sub.2]O 0.62 0.57 1.02 1.68 1.2

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Massive basalt at Partridge Island,

corresponding to the lower lava unit of North Mountain, conformably

overlies the Blomidon Formation. Some eolian sandstone has abundant

patches of concretions 5-10 mm in diameter that consist of sandstone

cemented by stellerite. The following physical properties were found to

be most useful for zeolite mineral identification in the field. Thomsonite, mesolite, and wairakite have narrow

compositional ranges. American Journal of

Science, v. The “heulandite” from the North

Shore shows the same clusters of Si/Al ratio (Fig. All rights reserved.

Natrolite is generally beige to white, massive or as radiating

fibres, dull, and brittle (Fig. Caped’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 59.64 49.15 49.82 49.97 49.59

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 14.07 26.57 26.93 26.52 26.59

CaO 3.19 0.29 b.d. Zeolite minerals

identified in this study at Arlington Quarry (representative locality

from Kings County) include heulandite (sensa stricto) , clinoptiolite,

stilbite, stellerite, scolecite, analcime, epistilbite, thomsonite, and

mesolite. Thomsonite from the North Shore has a higher

Si/Al ratio average of 1.25 (Fig. 860 862 863 773

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 45.55 45.76 46.07 38.58

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 24.78 25.19 24.66 30.17

[FeO.sup.t] b.d. Remarks on the Geology and Mineralogy of Nova

Scotia. 0.55

CaO 14.55 14.71 14.55 13.50

[Na.sub.2]O b.d. b.d. 14, pp. U.S. University of Toronto Studies, Series 14, Contributions to

Canadian Mineralogy, pp. The temperature ofzeo]ite crystallization appears to have been high at Arlington Quarry, where

“heulandite” and stilbite crystallised with little Na in their

crystal structure. b.d. Tectonics, v. At lower lemperatures on Ihe North Shore, Na was

accommodated in the structure ofchabazite and other zeolites such as

analcime, and final crystallisation was represented by only small

amounls of Na-rich zeolites (natrolite group).

Study areas on the North Shore of the Minas Basin include Wasson

Bluff, Cape Sharp, Five Islands, Partridge Island, Horseshoe Cove,

Western Cape d’Or, and Two Islands (Fig. The chemical range of

“heulandite” is similar to that at Morden (Pe-Piper 2000),

except that no Na-clinoptilolite or K-heulandite has been found in the

present study. b.d.

[Na.sub.2]O 13.27 13.61 13.41 13.42

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Tectonic

evolution of Fundy basin, Canada: Evidence for extension and shortening

during passive margin formation. Zeolite mineral assemblages in

the North Mountain Basalt, Nova Scotia. 5-26

In both Figs. Une comparaison a ete effectuee avec des assemblages de Ia

carriere Arlington au North Mountain, ou let zeolites predominantes sont

l’heulandite (au sens strict) et la stilbite. 80 80 80 80

Si 24.59 24.54 24.56 22.28

Al 15.36 15.43 15.33 17.63

Ca 4.81 5.27 5.34 6.21

Na 5.95 5.02 5.11 5.57

K b.d. 92 93 46 47

Locality Wasson Bluff Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 42.04 42.02 58.38 57.75

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 28.78 28.34 21.09 21.47

CaO 11.20 11.32 b.d. The overall order of crystallization from

earliest to latest is: chabazite to quartz + stilbite to calcite.

The North Shore of the Minas Basin is part of the

Cobequid-Chedabucto fault system that was active during the Triassic and

Jurassic (Stevens 1987; Withjack etal. 1987. b.d. Barr

“Heulandite” to silica minerals to “heulandite”

to stilbite

FIELD GEOLOGY OF STUDY AREAS

New field observations clarify the occurrence of zeolites in the

Wasson Bluff section (Fig. Geological Association

of Canada and Mineralogical Association of Canada, Field Trip 3, pp.

71-94.

Thirty polished thin sections of representative specimens from the

North Shore of the Minas Basin were prepared for detailed study by

electron microprobe. b.d. Massive

light-pink “heulandite” identified by XRD resembled chabazite

in hand specimen.

How, H. b.d. Schlische and Olsen (1989) noted that narrow

neptunian dykes are commonly silicified, and that cataclastic basalt

contains chabazite, but some faults that they interpreted as almost

syn-depositional lack zeolite mineralisation.

At Wasson Bluff, celadonite, silica minerals,

“heulandite”, analcime, and chabazite in amygdales in the

basalt flows and in basalt clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation formed

before deposition of the McCoy Brook Formation sedimentary rocks began.

Veins and concretions of “heulandite”, chabazite, stellerite,

and silica minerals in these sedimentary rocks are later.

The vesicular and jointed basalt at Cape Sharp also overlies red

sandstone of the Blomidon Formation. b.d. 4c).

All zeolite minerals previously reported from the North Mountain

Basalt, except gyrolite, levyne, and mordenite, have also been

identified along the North Shore of the Minas Basin. b.d.

BaO

SrO

Total 82.93 82.25 81.00 81.55

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. b.d. 726 754 785 786

Locality Arlington Quarry Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.94 57.31 56.92 55.85

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.41 15.79 15.32 15.61

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 8.04 8.13 8.07 8.18

[Na.sub.2]O 0.69 0.76 0.34 0.51

[K.sub.2]O b.d. b.d.

CaO 9.15 9.04 14.34

[Na.sub.2]O 4.34 4.30 b.d.

[K.sub.2]O b.d. The mixture of methanol and sample

was then mounted on a glass slide using a micro-pipette and allowed to

dry. 4d).

Epistilbite is generally vitreous and colourless to pink.

Other North Shore localities

Two Islands

This work was supported partly by the Natural Sciences and

Engineering Council of Canada Research Grant. b.d.

Mg 0.87 b.d. 0.49 0.6 b.d.

Si/Al 2.61 2.85 3.12 3.13 3.06

E% 1.9 1.2 -5.2 -2.5 -6.1

Mineral Stilbite Stilbite

Sample Z230 Z31 Z31

Analysis No. 1980. 40, pp. A description of the

mineralogy and geology of a part of Nova Scotia. 0.21 0.22 0.28

Total 88.47 85.5 85.05 83.66

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d.

MgO 1.09 b.d. b.d.

Si/Al 1.56 1.54 1.59 1.09

E% -6.3 -5.8 -6.8 -4.6

Mineral Thomsonite Natrolite Tetranatrolite

Sample Z33 Z19 Z44 Z44

Analysis No. 5 and 6, zeolites from Arlington Quarry cluster much

more tightly than those from the North Shore. 1995.

Syn-sedimentary collapse of portions of the lower Blomidon Formation,

Fundy rift basin, Nova Scotia. Gmelinite

was reported by Gilpin (1881) and natrolite by Walker and Parsons

(1922), but we did not identify those zeolite minerals. It commonly occurs in cubic rhombohedra and is rarely

massive.

Scolecite to stilbite

At Wasson Bluff, basalt flows of the North Mountain Basalt and

overlying siliciclastic sediments of the McCoy Brook Formation are all

dismembered by synchronous movement on the nearby left-lateral

Portapique Fault. 2000. b.d. 1989). The following sequences of

crystallization are recognised, from early to late:

AUMENTO, F. However, many analysed zeolites from the North

Shore ha ve a higher sodium content compared with published values from

elsewhere (Gottardi and Galli 1985).

Stilbite is abundant and chabazite is common in the area, with

minor “heulandite” and barrerite. 80 72 72 72

Si 24.2 29.55 29.28 29.15

Al 16 6.49 6.73 6.87

Fe b.d.

Mg b.d.

Ca 1.43 3.03 3.18 3.21

Na 12.36 0.16 0.19 0.17

K b.d. Aumento

1966; Adams 1980). Chemistry and Chemical

Reactivity. The type section of

the North Mountain basalt is overlain by the lacustrine Scots Bay

Formation, whereas the basalt on the North Shore is overlain by

siliciclastic rocks of the Mccoy Brook Formation. b.d.

Si/Al 1.60 1.59 1.60 1.26

E% -1.4 -0.8 -2.9 -1.9

Mineral Thomsonite Analcime

Sample Z51 W102

Analysis No. Other identified zeolites from elsewhere in Kings County

include mordenite, natrolite, tetranatrolite, rare chabazite, analcime,

laumontite gmelinite, and gyrolite (Pe-Piper and Horton 1996; Pe-Piper

2000; and unpublished data). The precipitation of

“heulandite”, a high-temperature zeolite, after stilbite, a

lower temperature zeolite, is noteworthy.

Wairakite is generally vitreous with well formed pseudo-octahedral

to pseudo-icositetrahedral colourless crystals that can be confused with

analcime (Fig. Gore, Field trip guidebook

T351, 28th Geological Congress, pp. 6a), less Ca, and

more K and Na; minor Mg was also detected. 108 109 111 40

Locality TowIslands WassonBluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 52.55 53.22 51.39 66.27

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 19.42 19.62 19.03 12.38

CaO 4.20 5.28 4.60 5.84

[Na.sub.2]O 10.26 8.49 13.16 0.57

[K.sub.2]O 0.28 0.32 0.16 0.46

BaO b.d. 305-330.

Thomsonite and/or epistilbite to mesolite

Stellerite was identified only by XRD and chemical analysis, but in

hand specimen resembles stilbite.

Laumontite is milky white and subvitreous to vitreous. 26, pp. Cycles of sand-fiat

sandstone and playa-lacustrine mudstone in the Triassic-Jurassic

Blomidon redbeds, Fundy rift basin, Nova Scotia: implications for

tectonic and climatic controls. 150-151.

TANNER, L.H., HUBERT, J.F. 761 764 766 767

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 58.31 60.39 59.7 61.9

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 17.12 16.36 16.38 16.41

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 8.51 8.67 8.32 8.34

[Na.sub.2]O 1.23 0.59 0.98 0.31

[K.sub.2]O b.d. This effect is not simply

the result of a greater geographic range on the North Shore, as analyses

from the Morden area reported by Pe-Piper (2000), from localities up to

30 km apart, show tight clusters similar to those from Arlington Quarry.

At both Arlington Quarry and the Morden area (Pe-Piper 2000), few

zeolites fall in the field in Figure 5 with either Ca+Mg 70% or Na

70%. b.d.

Total 86.71 86.93 88.34 85.97

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. Within the McCoy Brook Formation, slickensides in red

sandstone and mudstone were interpreted by Schlische and Olsen (1989) as

hydroplastic, having formed in incompletely lithifled sediment.

Introduction

At Two Islands, the larger island is entirely basalt and has common

gmelinite and analcime. The upper part of the format ion consists of red

fluvial sandstone. Tanner and Hubert (1991) noted

that the talus slope breccia included zeolite-filled fractures cutting

both clasts and matrix. b.d. b.d. 5, pp. 4h), either pink

or colourless. 72 72 72 72

Si 26.98 27.53 27.55 26.60

Al 9.16 8.49 8.54 9.13

Fe

Mg

Ca 3.96 3.89 3.83 4.36

Na 0.49 0.46 0.35 1.48

K 0.18 0.19 0.18 b.d.

Si/Al 2.95 3.24 3.23 2.91

E% 6.6 0.6 4.3 -10.6

Mineral Stellerite

Sample Z40

Analysis No. 1215-1232.

Although “heulandite” occurrences were not suggested in

earlier studies, this zeolite is abundant in the samples examined.

Stilbite is common and associated minerals are quartz and calcite. Within individual crystals at Arlington Quarry, Si, Na, and K

decrease from core to rim, whereas Al and Ca increase. Booth, personal communication, 1999). Zeolites also cement

zones where basalt has been brecciated (Fig. 96 96 96 96

Si 33.95 34.57 35.53 34.03

Al 12.81 13.02 13.29 13.48

Ca 5.74 4.94 5.32 5.48

Na 5.48 4.12 2.89 3.84

K 0.81 0.66 0.50 0.65

Si/Al 2.65 2.66 2.60 2.52

E% -27.9 -11.2 -5.3 -12.7

Mineral Wairakite Chabazite

Sample Z675 Z667

Analysis No. Heulandite (sensu stricto) and stilbite are

abundant in Arlington Quarry and very little Na was accommodated in

their crystal structures. 1836. 96 96 96 96

Si 32.20 33.11 33.28 33.35

Al 14.82 14.83 14.75 14.63

Ca b.d. 48 49 176 180

Locality WassonBluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.61 58.88 57.19 58.05

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.81 16.54 16.88 15.67

CaO 5.05 5.24 4.71 5.97

[Na.sub.2]O 1.11 0.40 0.70 0.73

[K.sub.2]O 1.31 1.09 2.40 0.74

BaO b.d. The variation in

evaporite distribution in the Blomidon Formation, from gypsum at the

basin margin to halite in the basin centre, may have influenced the

chemistry of later hydrothermal zeolites.

The zeolite mineral assemblages vary in each study locality on the

North Shore of the Minas Basin. 6a), lower Fe, Mg, and Ca, and Na

increases from core to rim of individual crystals. In addition,

wairakite, barrerite, and tetranatrolite, not previously reported, have

been identified. AND HORTON, D. 1975. The

most common zeolite minerals in this area are chabazite,

“heulandite”, stilbite, and analcime. b.d.

Na 14.75 15.06 14.61 14.71

K b.d. 50, pp. 1987. In individual veins,

amygdales, and vugs, the sequence of minerals from rim to core is

interpreted as a time sequence (Pe-Piper 2000). Zeolites in the basalt are mostly in

veins and less commonly in cavities.

Stellerite to “heulandite”

Based on textural relationships between minerals in individual hand

specimens, the following sequences of crystallization are recognised,

from early to late:

Date received: August 9,2002Date accepted: December 2, 2002

Selected chemical analyses of zeolite minerals from the North Shore

of Minas Basin are given in Table 1. AND OLSEN, P.E. b.d.

Total 86.78 89.23 89.12 88.45

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. 0.22

Mg b.d. b.d. 789 792 794 798 802

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 56.76 55.66 57.62 57.65 55.22

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 15.82 15.39 16.21 16.2 15.42

[FeO.sup.t]

MgO

CaO 8.35 8.32 7.64 7.29 7.03

[Na.sub.2]O 1.17 1.16 b.d. Barth-Wirshing and Holler (1989) suggested that

chabazite forms from basaltic glass at temperatures of 50-150[degrees]

C, whereas heulandite forms from rhyolitic glass at temperatures of

150-225[degrees]C. b.d. b.d. The dominance of “heulandite” in Kings

County and of chabazite on the North Shore suggests that formation

temperatures were higher in Kings County. Where possible, analyses with a

chemical balance error (E) (Passaglia 1975) of 10% are given in the

table and illustrated in Figures 5 and 6, but in cases where no other

analyses were available, some analyses with higher balance errors are

included. Les zeolites dans let roches sedimentaires de

la Formation de McCoy Brook se limitent a quelques zones distinctes,

dont des fiilles importantes. Gossip and Coade, Times Office, Halifax, N.S.

The earliest Jurassic (Hettangian) North Mountain Basalt of the Bay

of Fundy has long been known for its rich assemblage of zeolite minerals

in amygdales, vugs, and fractures (Aumento 1966). Partridge Is.

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 58.55 61.86 60.03 58.53

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.16 16.57 16.55 14.04

CaO 7.83 5.72 5.16 4.22

[Na.sub.2]O 0.59 1.17 2.26 4.33

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Within individual

crystals, Si, Al, Ca, and Na generally decrease from core to rim,

whereas Fe and Mg decrease. 0.11

Si/Al 2.89 3.13 3.19 3.2

E% -2.1 -2.2 -2.1 2.7

Mineral Epistilbite Stilbite

Sample Z33 Z25 Z230

Analysis No. Wasson Bluff and Cape d’Or display

the largest variety of zeolite minerals, whereas the other localities

have only two to five zeolite minerals. b.d. Zeolites

are common in veins and at western Cape d’Or, also in joints.

Previous Work

Table 1

Electron microprobe analyses of representative zeolite minerals

Mineral Mesolite Thomsonite

Sample Z270 Z401 Z51

Analysis No. The widest neptunian dykes

are orthogonal to the regional extension direction. 24 24 72 72

Si 8.53 8.67 26.60 26.98

Al 3.24 3.13 9.48 9.09

Ca 0.14 0.11 4.09 4.14

Na 2.89 2.71 0.99 0.55

K 1.00 1.00 b.d. 2k), presumably reflecting the

greater brittleness of the basalt. Pe-Piper (2000) proposed that the abundance of mordenite in

Kings County was in part related to extraction of Na from evaporites of

the Blomidon Formation. Well crystallized “heulandite”

can easily be identified by its coffin-shaped crystal habit. b.d. Let filons massifs persents a

l’interieur des failles sent principalement constitues de c

habasite. In comparison, on the North Shore the

temperature of zeolite formation was probably lower, so that Na was

accommodated in the structure of chabazite and other zeolites (e.g.,

analcime) and finally only small amounts of Na-rich zeolites (natrolite

group) crystallized at the lowermost temperatures. The chemical compositions of individual zeolite minerals can

be illustrated on a Na – K – (Ca+Mg) plot (Fig. Arlington Quarry

Chemical differences between zeolites of the North Shore and Kings

County may also result from different chemistry of crystallizing

solutions. 771 772 859

Locality Arlington Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 45.53 45.09 46.17

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 25.40 25.12 24.38

[FeO.sup.t] b.d. b.d.

BaO

SrO

Total 91.01 91.81 90.31 90.02 90.58

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 774 877 710 714

Locality Arlington WC AC

Quarry

Major elements (wt%)

[SiO.sub.2] 38.42 47.06 47.22 47.20

[A1.sub.2][O.sub.3] 29.15 26.25 26.55 26.41

[FeO.sup.t] 1.80 b.d. The term

“acadialite” has been applied by previous workers to the pink

variety of chabazite. The associated

minerals include quartz, other forms of silica, malachite and magnetite.

Data are insufficient to determine an overall order of crystallization,

but sequences of quartz to stilbite, quartz to “heulandite”,

stilbite to laumontite, and mesolite to quartz are seen.

Gmelinite is generally pink and vitreous with well formed

colourless hexagonal dipyramid, prism and pinacoid crystals (Fig. b.d.

BaO

SrO

Total 83.05 91.57 92.94 92.47 92.76

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. 1) was selected as a representative

zeolite-bearing locality from the North Mountain Basalt of Kings County.

Sixty-three zeolite samples from the quarry were studied in hand

specimen (Fig. Edited by P.E. Most other

minerals show a narrow range of compositions, particularly in Si/Al

ratio.

Sequence of crystallisation of zeolites and other secondary

minerals is based on two types of evidence. In contrast to Arlington

Quarry, within individual crystals of mesolite from the North Shore, Si,

Al, and Ca increase from core to rim and K was detected, but

(Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) from the two areas is similar.

Analcime to analcime + “heulandite” to natrolite to

calcite.

CONCLUSIONS

GOTTARDI, C., GALLI, E. Aux tempeatures

inferieures de la cote nord, leNa a incorpore dans Ia structure de la

chabasite et des au tres zeolites telles que l’analcime, et la

cristallisation finale etait representee par des quantites reduites

seulement de zeolites riches en Na (groupe de la natrolite).

Cape Sharp

The zeolites we identified at this locality are the same as those

reported by Booth (1994) and Donohoe et al. The

study areas of the North Shore include localities known as Five Islands,

Two Islands, Wasson Bluff, Partridge Island, Gape Sharp, Horseshoe Cove,

and western Cape d’Or (Fig. Fieldtrip guide for the International Zeolite Association, 9th

International Zeolite Conference, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, pp. 80

Si 24.41

Al 15.57

Ca 1.04

Na 13.58

K b.d.

Si/Al 1.57

E% -0.6

b.d. Zeolite rosettes 5-20 mm in diameter appear to have

precipitated in situ in the muddy matrix of the debris-flow deposits

within a few metres of these faults. 0.48 0.41 1.03

Si/Al 3.07 3.17 3.08 3.54

E% 6.3 21.2 16.2 -15.6

Mineral Barrerite Natrolite

Sample W168 Z303 Z270

Analysis No. b.d. 105 50 65 57

Locality CapeSharp Partridge Is. Rocks younger than

the McCoy Brook Formation are not present in the region, so that the age

of the youngest zeolitization cannot be determined.

Heulandite (sensu stricto) to stilbite to clinoptilolite

Analcime and natrolite are abundant, mesolite and stilbite are

common, and thomsonite, chabazite, laumontite, and

“heulandite” are rare. 2b) are similar, principally with celadonite and silica minerals

in amygdales. Vol. 3), which is cataclastic basalt brecciated along strike-slip fault

zones. Natural zeolites.

Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 409 p.

Zeolites from basalt at Cape d’Or were collected from both

Horseshoe Cove in the east and the western part of Cape d’Or near

the lighthouse. b.d. Zeolites fill vugs in the basalt. 13-73.

Chabazite to gmelinite to barite

Wasson Bluff

Methods

SABINA, A.P. b.d.

SrO b.d. In individual crystals, Si content

decreases from core to rim, whereas Al and K increase, and Ca first

increases and then decreases. 52 53 20 21

Locality Partridge Is. JR., COLWELL, J.A., GEORGE, E. Les matieres

predominantes remplissant let vacuoles dans Ic basalte sont Ia

caladonite et la silice, en compagnie de petites quantites

d’, de chabasite et d’analcime.

Les clastes basaltiques let plus ages a l’interieur de la Formation

de McCoy Brook renferment un assemblage mineral analogue (notamment de

l’ et de la chabasite de faible

densite) dans let geodes, ce qui laisse supposer que la zeolitisation la

plus ancienne a precede I’erosion des clasres aux escarpements des

failles dans le basalte. b.d. Journal

of Sedimentary Petrology, v. An internal standard (scolecite) was used in

addition to the standard regularly used. Field

identification was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and electron

microprobe chemical analyses.

Scolecite was not identified in the field and detected only by XRD.

The most abundant zeolite on the larger island is analcime, whereas

gmelinite and chabazite are common and stilbite and natrolite are rare

(I. New insights into the classification and

formation of zeolites hosted by the North Mountain Basalt, Annapolis

Valley, southern Nova Scotia. Potential

zeolite minerals were extracted from each sample based on colour and

crystal habit. Avec la baisse de la temperature, la solution de

cristallisation s’est enrichie en Na, et les zeolites sodiques,

comme Ia natrolite, ont commence a se cristalliser. b.d. The Si/Al ratios of epistilbite from both areas are

similar, but epistilbite from the North Shore has lower Al and Ca and

higher Na. 390-405.

COPYRIGHT 2002 Atlantic Geoscience Society

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Purpose

Introduction

Stilbite from Arlington Quarry is generally sheaf-like, vitreous,

and colourless, resembling that of the North Shore. 72 72 72 72 72

Si 26.00 26.03 27.10 27.21 27.13

Al 9.95 9.92 9.04 8.75 8.89

Ca 4.08 4.03 3.92 4.13 4.07

Na 0.45 0.54 0.65 0.65 0.66

K 1.56 1.54 b.d. 1, pp.

489-506.

On geological criteria, the relative timing of crystallisation is

much less clear. b.d. 283-296.

A Ia Wasson Bluff, les coulees basaltiques du basalte du North

Mountain et les sediments silicoclastiques sus-jacents de la Formation

de McCoy Brook sont bus demembres par le mouvement synchrone exerce sur

la faille laterale gauche voisine de Porrapique. Rock and mineral collecting in Canada. b.d. b.d.

Si/Al 1.12 1.52 1.51 1.52

E% -4.8 -0.7 5.2 5.9

Mineral Tetranatrolite “Heulandite”

Sample Z44 Z30

Analysis No. 6a). 31.

The fault zone cutting sandstone of the McCoy Brook Formation that

shows hydroplastic slickensides described by Schlische and Olsen (1989)

also has sub-parallel zeolite veins and veins of silicified sediment.

Thin silica veins have been found in other faults cutting sandstone of

the McCoy Brook Formation.

DONOHOE, H.V. 6a), two types of

“heulandite” can be distinguished. Nova Scotia Department of

Natural Resources, Mines and Energy Branch, Open File Report 96-001, 3O

p.

Hydrothermal origin of zeolites

Les analyses par diffraction des rayons X et par microsonde

electronique revelent Ia presence des assemblages ci-apres dans Ics

coulees basaltiques et les roches sedimentaires silicoclastiques

sus-jacentes le long du rivage nord du Minas Basin: Five Islands –

predominance de chabasite et de stilbite, ainsi qu’

heulandite et barrerite; Two Islands — analcime (predominance), ainsi

que gmdinite, chabasite, stilbite et natrolite; Wasson Bluff-

predominance de chabasite, de stilbite et d’heulandite

, ainsi qu’herschalite, barrerite, stellerite, analcime,

wairakite, natrolite, clinoprilolite et thomsonite; Partridge Island –

predominance de chabasite et de stilbite, ainsi qu’analcime,

epistilbite, natrolite, barrerite, et heulandite ; Cape Sharp -

chabasite, stilbite, barrerite, stellerite et heulandite

; Horseshoe Cove — heulandite et stilbite; Cape

d’Or Quest — predominance d’analcime, de stilbite, de

natrolite et de mesolite, ainsi que stelldrite, epistilbite, barrerite,

scolecite, chabasite , heulandite , wairakite, retranatrolite et

laumontite. Zeolite minerals, Nova Scotia. In the basalt, zeolites are common in some thinner joints

with neptunian dykes (Fig. They are “heulandite” (heulandite sensu

stricto and clinoptilolite), chabazite, analcime, stilbite, barrerite,

epistilbite, gmelinite, laumontite, natrolite, mesolite, scolecite,

stellerite, tetranatrolite, thomsonite, and wairakite. 1997. Calcite, silica

minerals, and barite, the last of which occurs alone or with quartz, are

commonly associated with the zeolite minerals.

Recent experimental data on the formation temperatures of natural

zeolites are limited. b.d. 1.7

Na 3.82 14.4 15.24 11.71

K b.d. 1).

Overall evidence presented in this study suggests that the

temperature of zeolite crystallization was higher in Arlington Quarry

compared to the North Shore. 1966. 141 131 132 91

Locality Cape d’Or Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 48.05 47.14 47.63 42.31

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 25.46 25.15 25.22 28.40

CaO 8.78 9.45 9.66 11.00

[Na.sub.2]O 6.00 4.97 5.11 5.45

[K.sub.2]O b.d. Ailleurs au North

Mountain, la pressence de mordenite, de natrolite et de laumontite a ute

confirmee. 6b). 2710-2717.

WITHJACK, M.O., OLSEN, P.E., SCHLISCHE, R.W. 1989. Geological Society of America Centennial Field Guide, Northeastern Section, v. = below detection limit

E = chemical balance error, [(Al+ [Fe.sup.3+])-[Al.sub.theor]]x100/

[Al.sub.theor] (after Passaglia 1975)

Table 2

Electron microprobe analyses of representative zeolite minerals from

Kings County

Mineral Mesolite Scolecite

Sample Z23 Z23

Analysis No. 125 126 128 130

Locality Cape d’Or

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.23 57.87 58.30 57.83

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 16.40 15.90 16.82 16.84

CaO 6.29 6.55 7.42 6.38

[Na.sub.2]O 1.55 2.01 0.83 0.93

[K.sub.2]O 0.68 0.62 0.42 0.75

BaO

SrO

Total 82.15 82.95 83.79 82.73

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. Edited by P.E. 756-765).

High-temperature solutions are thus more likely to precipitate Ca-rich

zeolites than Na-rich zeolites. 5a). b.d. As the temperatures decreased and the

circulating fluids became depleted in Ca, lower temperature, Narich

zeolites (natrolite group) began to crystallize. As temperatures fell, Na enrichment of the

circulating fluids resulted in crystallization of Na-rich zeolite

minerals, such as natrolite. Basaltic breccia with a red mudstone

matrix, probably a faulted equivalent of the talus slope breccia seen at

Wasson Bluff, contains zeolites, principally in veins, although some

occur in vugs in the matrix and in amygdales in the basalt clasts.

WALKER, T.L., PARSONS, A.L. Mode of occurrence, chemical variations and

genesis of the zeolite minerals from the North Shore of the Minas Basin,

Nova Scotia. 1868. Careful extraction of minerals helped increase the

recovery of monomineralic samples and a microscope was employed to

ensure purity of the mineral extracts. b.d. 0.11 0.81

Si/Al 3.08 3.04 2.95 3.09 2.69

E% 0.6 3.2 0.4 -0.3 -0.9

Mineral “Heulandite”

Sample Z33 Z36

Analysis No. 4a).

BOOTH, I. Within the McCoy Brook Formation,

zeolitization is generally restricted to a few discrete zones, including

major faults and near the contact of talus-sl ope deposits with basalt

(again, presumably related to active faulting). 442-451.

Previous work on the zeolites of the North Shore of the Minas Basin

has been reported by Jackson and Alger (1828), Gesner (1836), How

(1868), Gilpin (1881), Walker and Parsons (1922), Sabina (1965), Aumento

(1966), Donohoe et al. 3). b.d. b.d. They were interpreted by Schlische and Olsen (1989) to

represent active tectonic extension of the North Mountain Basalt and

filling of fractures by sediment from above. 80 80 80 80

Si 20.67 24.12 24.17 24.24

Al 18.49 15.86 16.02 15.99

Fe 0.81 b.d. 163 164 8 9

Locality Cape d’Or Wasson Bluff

Major elements (wt %)

Si[O.sub.2] 57.76 58.01 53.85 54.39

[Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] 19.12 18.84 17.31 17.55

CaO 8.07 8.80 8.02 7.19

[Na.sub.2]O 3.81 2.79 3.85 4.63

[K.sub.2]O 0.70 0.67 0.82 0.95

BaO

SrO

Total 89.46 89.11 83.85 84.71

Molecular formula

Oxygen No. Walker and Parsons

(1922) reported analcime, natrolite, thomsonite, and gmelinite, but we

have not identified those minerals in our samples. Saunders College Publishing, Montreal, 1020 p.

Chabazite + “heulandite” + quartz to stilbite,

Mesolite of Arlington Quarry is white and dull, resembling that of

the North Shore in hand specimen. In contrast, on the North Shore, all epistilbite, thomsonite,

and mesolite analyses lie in this field, together with wairakite and

many chabazite analyses, two minerals not analyzed from Kings County.

JACKSON, C.T., ALGER, F. 6a) than at Arlington Quarry. b.d. Late

fractures in the basalt flows predominantly contain chabazite.

Thomsonite from Arlington Quarry is generally white, dull, and

massive with Si/Al average of 1.10 (Fig. 0.2 1.41 1.72 1.33

Total 82.1 80.73 82.91 82.86 79.29

Molecular Formula

Oxygen No. b.d. The samples were then analysed using a Siemens Cristaloflex

diffractometer, CoK[alpha] radiation, and a scan from 2[degrees] to

42[degrees] 20 at a speed of 0.250 20/min. Experimental studies on

zeolite formation conditions. b.d.

Si/Al 1.24 1.26 2.35 2.28

E% -0.3 -4.1 1.7 0.3

Mineral Analcime

Sample Z51 Z270

Analysis No. Chabazite was

reported by Sabina (1965) from Mink Cove and Cape Split, but we have

found no samples at Arlington Quarry and Morden (Pe-Piper 2000).

Mordenite, which is common in Kings County, has not been found on the

North Shore of the Minas Basin.

Mineral chemistry: North Shore vs. b.d. b.d. The

overall order of crystallization is: quartz to stilbite + quartz to

stilbite to “heulandite” to calcite. Halifax, N.S., 217 p.

PE-PIPER, G. b.d. The oldest basaltic clasts in the McCoy Brook Formation

contain sparse zeolite in amygdales even where matrix zeolite is absent,

suggesting that the oldest zeolitization predated erosion of the clasts

at fault scarps in the basalt, However, the predominant zeolitization

appears to affect the McCoy Brook Formation and the North Mountain

Basalt equally. b.d. 1881. Atlantic Geoscience Society, Annual

Colloquium, Program with Abstracts, p. b.d.

Ca 7.35 0.79 b.d. The basalt of the

North Shore hosts zeolites in pipes, joints, veins, fractures, cavities,

and fault zones, and in the amygdales and groundmass of the basalt

Are ‘Mini-Nukes’ The New Big Thing?

According to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the move “restores the nation’s ability to make nuclear weapons,” and was needed so the Energy Department could replace pits found unsafe or destroyed through regular check-ups.

Last year, the U.S. In the modern U.S. — did not prohibit designing a testing device with a yield below five kilotons, modifying an existing weapon for safety reasons or conducting research and development necessary “to address proliferation concerns.”

The move to clear the legal hurdles on manufacturing mini-nukes is part of a broad review of U.S. spent more in real terms on atomic defense activities than since 1962.

Strategy — In its Nuclear Posture Review last year, the administration identified Iraq, Iran, Syria, Libya, North Korea as countries where “contingencies” could arise that U.S. arsenal. ET Sunday.

AP Photo/Canadian Press/Tim Krochak

The ban — named after sponsors Elizabeth Furse, D-Ore., retired, and John Spratt, D-S.C. “Unless we do a lot more research and development and we find some quantum breakthrough in conventional systems, to go deep is going to require a nuclear capability.”

But some members of Congress believe conventional weapons could do the same job, and worry that mini-nukes would blur the line between conventional and nuclear weapons. Edward Kennedy, the administration has budgeted $700 million for studying how testing might resume. Crouch, the assistant secretary of Defense for International Security Policy, said in a briefing last year.

“How can we effectively seek to dissuade others from developing nuclear weapons while we are going forward with the development of new nuclear weapons ourselves?” Sen. Dianne Feinstein, a California Democrat, asked recently.

CBSNews.com’s Jarrett Murphy takes a look at the prospects for the U.S. conducted its last nuclear test in 1992, and while the White House opposes the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty — which the U.S. wants to stop proliferation.

“Nuclear weapons have a unique ability to destroy both agent containers and (Chemical and Biological Weapons),” reads a 2001 Pentagon study.. But the administration says smaller nuclear arms may eventually be needed to deal with the emerging threat of rogue states hoarding weapons of mass destruction.

A kiloton is equal to the explosive force of one thousand tons of TNT.

However, the administration is paying increasing attention to the possibility that it might at some point have to resume testing if there were a question about the reliability of the nation’s stockpile. Last May, he and Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to slash their active arsenals by nearly two-thirds, to 1700 to 2200 warheads each, within 10 years.

At the same time, however, last month the United States produced a plutonium pit — the core of a fission bomb — for the first time in 14 years. All rights reserved.

Announcing its approval of the bill Friday, the Senate Armed Services committee stressed that nothing in the repeal means it has authorized “the testing, acquisition, or deployment of a low-yield nuclear weapon.”

Defense officials said in 2002 that at present, the U.S could go from the decision to test to a trial run in two to three years. Five people watching the surf from Hurricane Bill were swept out to sea at Acadia National Park in Maine. arsenal, the submarine-launched Mk-5 holds eight W88 warheads of 475 kilotons each.

The Foster Panel, which studied the testing issue last year, recommended improvements that would allow a test within three months to a year of deciding to do so. A bomb of just one kiloton, detonated 30 meters below the earth, can open a crater wider than a football field, according to Princeton physicist Robert W. According to Sen. has signed but not ratified — the administration says it has no plans to conduct a test. Duncan Hunter, R.-Calif., last May. Nelson.

By Jarrett Murphy

A memo obtained by a British newspaper indicates that at a conference this summer, Defense and Energy department officials will consider questions like: “What is the uncertainty in confidence and potential risk threshold for a test recommendation–what would demand a test?”

The Little Boy bomb dropped on Hiroshima delivered around 15 kilotons.

Copyright 2003 CBS. “If you were to have a problem with a weapon system that you needed to rectify using a test, you would want to be able to do that faster,” J. D. Other efforts include developing lasers and computers to simulate aspects of nuclear tests.

Nuclear Stockpiles: President Bush has agreed to dramatic reductions in the number of nuclear weapons in the U.S. Others contend that making more bombs is a bad idea if the U.S. development of low-yield nuclear weapons.

The Bush administration may get permission to create kinder, gentler or at least smaller nuclear weapons if Congress overturns a ban on doing so.

The defense appropriations bill now winding its way through the Hill contains a clause revoking the 1993 Spratt-Furse amendment, which prohibits the development of so-called “low-yield” nuclear weapons – bombs that pack a punch of less than five kilotons.

“One way you ensure that there are no safe havens is to be able to go deep,” said Armed Services Committee chairman Rep. Two had been recovered and three were still missing as of 5 p.m. policy on nuclear weapons, which has included:

Bunker busters — For the second year in a row, the Energy Department is requesting $15 million to study the need for a Robust Nuclear Earth Penetrator (RNEP).

Supporters say these weapons might be necessary to deal with so-called “hard and deeply buried targets” in rogue states and terrorist camps, of which there might be 10,000 in the world.

But some experts contend that no bomb of any size could go very deep, because the heavier the bomb, the harder the impact — and the harder the impact, the more likely the bomb would explode before it reached sufficient depth.

Testing — The U.S. “nuclear strike capabilities” must be geared towards, according to a leaked copy of the report.

The 1993 low-yield ban that the current defense bill would delete stated that “it shall be the policy of the United States not to conduct research and development which could lead to the production by the United States of a new low-yield nuclear weapon, including a precision low-yield warhead.”

CAROUSEL – People watch as water breaches a rock wall at Lawrencetown, Nova Scotia, Canada, Sunday, August 23, 2009

Workhorse Delivers First EGen™ Electric Vehicles to Major Transportation Company as part of Contract Fulfillment

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Built on the new, narrow track W88 chassis, the E-GEN trucks come with a 60 kWh lithium ion battery pack featuring Panasonic 18650 cells that provide power to a 2200 nm (268 bhp) permanent magnet motor powerful enough to eliminate the need for a transmission.

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W88 warhead program performs successful tests

CRAFT demonstrated how the radar performed during re-entry through plasma generated by the hypersonic speeds at which the warhead travels.

. Sandia and its partners are analyzing results to validate requirements and radar design.

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Sandia National Laboratories performed a drop test for the W88 ALT 370 program, designed to replicate a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface. The test was conducted at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon.

The first flight and drop tests for the latest variant of the W88 nuclear warhead are providing data for Sandia National Laboratories to validate designs, improve computer modeling and update component specifications.

A month later, the first drop test of the W88 ALT 370 program mimicked a crane accidentally dropping the re-entry body onto a concrete surface to develop evidence that it would remain safe during an accident. An abnormal environment is one that is unexpected, such as an accident.

Sandia will use vibration and shock measurements from the test to update specifications for components in the weapon, he said. “The weapon is not required to function after that, just to stay safe,” Edwards said.

The two successful tests, which were conducted this summer, provide data for the program, the W88 ALT 370 (alteration), to move forward, said Tim Edwards, manager for the program’s technical basis and qualification activities.

It was the W88 program’s first abnormal drop test since the system’s original qualification test in 1987. It also represented a milestone: the first flight test unit Sandia and its partners, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Kansas City Plant (KCP) and Pantex, delivered to the Navy for full-scale testing under the program.

The Critical Radar Arming and Fuzing Test (CRAFT) was the first flight test of a prototype radar for the W88 ALT 370. Using an unarmed re-entry body, Sandia conducted the test in partnership with LANL, KCP and Pantex at Sandia’s 185-foot Drop Tower Facility, using the same handling gear a crane would use to move the weapon, making the test as realistic as possible.

The new radar functioned as expected after launch on a Trident II missile from a Navy submarine, Edwards said

Brad Pitt takes son Pax for a ride in his motorbike and sidecar

The actor is now said to be planning to build an ambitious house over the falls near LA in the style of his favourite American architect, Frank Lloyd Wright.

The pair were taking a trip to a local grocery store in Los Feliz, where Pax emerged carrying a large paper bag.

Getting the essentials: Pitt and his eight-year-old son emerged from a grocery store in Los Feliz ready to ride homeGetting the essentials: Pitt and his eight-year-old son emerged from a grocery store in Los Feliz ready to ride home

The Hollywood actor is known for his love of the vehicles and has ridden some cool bikes in the past but the one he opted for yesterday was quite different.

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The Moneyball star made sure him and his eight-year-old son stayed safe by wearing helmets and has obviously adapted his love for bikes to ensure it is a more child-friendly activity.

The long-haired actor was once involved in a crash on his motorbike while trying to escape the paparazzi but it doesn’t seem to have put him off.

Don't forget the shopping! The Vietnamese child seemed excited about riding in his father's sidecarDon’t forget the shopping! The Vietnamese child seemed excited about riding in his father’s sidecar

Kirsty Mccormack

However, despite the accident Pitt is obviously introducing his children to the mode of transport at a young age.

The Vietnamese child looked particularly excited as his father got him ready for the ride and relaxed in the sidecar as Pitt cruised the streets.

His other children Maddox, ten, six-year-old Zahara, five-year-old Shiloh and twins Knox and Vivienne, three, were nowhere to be seen yesterday but no doubt they’ll have their turns in the future.

Pitt was spotted cruising around California yesterday on his black Russian Ural Tourist motorbike, but he was accompanied by his son Pax in a sidecar.

Like father, like son: Brad Pitt takes son Pax for a spin in his Russian Ural Tourist motorbike in California yesterdayLike father, like son: Brad Pitt takes son Pax for a spin in his Russian Ural Tourist motorbike in California yesterday

The couple recently sold their Malibu home to chat show host Ellen DeGeneres.

Lucky guy: Angelina Jolie reportedly brought Pitt a waterfall in California for his combined birthday and Christmas presentLucky guy: Angelina Jolie reportedly brought Pitt a waterfall in California for his combined birthday and Christmas present

When most men ride a motorcycle at the age of 48, it is assumed they are experiencing a mid-life crisis – but not Brad Pitt.

Pitt wore an all-black outfit that included a zip-up onesie and he completed the look with a pair of sunglasses.

The famous family spent Christmas and Pitt’s birthday on December 18 in California together where Angelina Jolie revealed that a waterfall – with surrounding land – was Pitt’s combined Christmas and birthday present.

Almost home: Pax looked on as his famous father made a speedy trip back to their Californian residenceAlmost home: Pax looked on as his famous father made a speedy trip back to their Californian residence

Back in October 2009 he fell off of his favourite bike after attempting to weave through traffic in Los Angeles.

Safety first: The actor made sure they wore their helmets at all timesSafety first: The actor made sure they wore their helmets at all times

FUN88 Has Now Taken a Majority Stake in BETNGO | Reuters

The founders of BETNGO have over 30 years of experience in the

gaming sector and BETNGO like FUN88 runs a popular affiliate system.

FUN88 is delighted to announce that the owners of FUN88 have now taken a

majority stake in ILA Curacao NV the operator of the very successful www.betngo.com

website.

Nathan Walker Director of Welton Holdings Limited, operator of FUN88

said “We are excited to be working with BETNGO whom we have known for

some time and look forward to a continued successful relationship with

BETNGO in the future.”

For Media Enquiries

Dan Binchy

dan.binchy@weltonplay.com

Telephone:

+ 44 1624 816288

BETNGO is particularly strong in poker and is part of the ipoker

network. BETNGO’s geographical reach complements that of FUN88 and

the companies will work together in developing exciting new products for

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FUN88 Has Now Taken a Majority Stake in BETNGO

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California teenager kills himself playing Russian roulette

The two cousins asked him “not to do it,” before he held the gun to his head and shot himself one time, Deputy Juanita Navarro-Suarez told the Los Angeles Times.

A game of Russian roulette in southern California ended as it might be expected to, tragically, when a 17-year old boy shot himself in the head while playing the deadly game of chance.

. Soto fatally shot himself in the head, more closely mirroring the movie’s final scenes in which Walken’s character plays another round of the game in a seedy gambling den.

The incident in southern California is eerily similar to the death of a 20-year old Chilean man last month.

Jonathan Alejandro Tapia Jiménez, Soto’s 27-year-old friend, said he was too scared to play.

Bryan Javier Soto Aguilera, 20, asked a friend to help him reenact the scene in which Vietnamese guards force Robert De Niro and Christopher Walken – playing Vietnam-era prisoners of war – to play the deadly game of chance.

“I asked if he had real bullets, and, when he said he did, I told him he was crazy and I wasn’t interested,” Jiménez said, according to the New York Daily News.

The teen, who lived with his older brother and sister-in-law, was pronounced dead at a hospital. “I ran back inside and found Bryan lying on the floor in a pool of blood,” he said.

The game – made infamous in the 1978 film “The Deer Hunter” - has players put a single bullet in a revolver, spin the cylinder, hold the muzzle up to their heads and pull the trigger.

The teenager, who was unnamed in local media reports, shot himself fatally just after midnight on Monday while in his family’s home in Torrance, California, according to the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department.

Jiménez then went outside where he heard the bang from the gun. The gun is than passed around until it goes off.

In the film, however, De Niro’s character turns the gun on his captors. His death was ruled an accident, Navarro-Suarez said.

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Los Angeles law enforcement officials said that the teen was using a .38 Special revolver and told his cousins that he was going to play the game in his bedroom

Column: FIFA presidency no laughing matter as would-be candidate becomes frontman for gambling

So silky as a player for Newcastle and Tottenham; so ridiculous now with his car-crash campaign for the FIFA presidency.

One of those is Kevin Twaddle, a former player for Motherwell and other Scottish clubs who told his story in the biography, “Life On The Line: How to Lose a Million and So Much More.” He no longer gambles and has delivered talks to other players about the risks.

Asking your kids to make tea during half-time breaks won’t shield them from the bombardment, not with gambling ads flashing throughout matches on pitch-side light-boards. But I mean you’re talking about one of the biggest, powerfulest jobs in football and all you’re getting to hear about is Paddy Power.”

. “There’s more passion, more pleasure and more pain.”

“I’m here today to talk about love” were the Frenchman’s seductive opening words at his campaign launch in London this month.

But that’s not the point here. 10 will pit two Asian online bookmakers against each other. Tuning in for results of football betting pools, which offered big jackpots for small stakes, was a Saturday afternoon ritual for many 20th Century English families.

Sport “matters more when there’s money on it,” it says. But the mere thought of the gambling industry even attempting to place a stooge at the very top of football makes the prospect of another Blatter term seem perhaps not quite so bad.

Bet. Bet again. Hull against Aston Villa on Feb. Villa’s shirt sponsor is dafabet, a name that works better in Chinese, where “dafa” means “big wealth.” Stoke and Burnley players are billboards for Bet365 and Fun88 (another name that plays on the Chinese word to get rich).

“It’s an absolute disgrace,” he said in a phone interview. Bet some more.

That is the message that football, more than most other sports, is mainlining into our homes, helped by names like Ginola and teams lending their cachet, stadiums, jerseys and players to the industry that had cash to splash when the 2008 financial crisis hobbled other sponsors.

Twaddle takes a very dim view of Ginola’s Paddy Power-backed grab for FIFA.

Sports and gambling have, of course, long gone together, feeding off each other’s success and growth. After Thursday’s passing of the entry deadline, “Team Ginola” should fade away.

Whoa. FIFA’s election and ethics rules will almost certainly keep him off the May ballot. It won’t happen; FIFA’s ethics rules should see to that. Ginola has zero chance of unseating Sepp Blatter. What ever happened to sport for sport’s sake, for the buzz of competition, not a bet? How quaint. “It’s great for Paddy Power. That much was clear from the Paddy Power branding.

We’re talking here about David Ginola. It reads like a plug for Fifty Shades of Grey.

John Leicester is an international sports columnist for The Associated Press. This was about making a splash. That was before online bookmakers offered odds on anything and everything, from match results and goals scored to which team will win the coin toss or take the first corner, and before their relentless advertising.

“It’s eyeballs we’re after,” 12Bet executive Rory Anderson, quoted in the Daily Mail, said when the online bookmaker became the name on Hull City’s shirt for this Premier League season.

PARIS –  Don’t laugh. Write to him at jleicester@ap.org or follow him at http://twitter.com/johnleicester

Imagine, for a moment, a Paddy Power-financed FIFA president. There’s nothing funny about the gambling industry’s latest wheeze to sink its teeth even deeper into football and its fans.

“It just makes like a mockery of football.”

But gambling advertising wasn’t as in-your-face as now. In the UK, which liberalized gambling advertising in 2007, adults’ exposure to gambling commercials on television soared five-fold in eight years to 2012, regulator Ofcom found. In pocketing 250,000 pounds (335,000 euros; US$375,000) from bookmaker Paddy Power for this stunt, Ginola became the latest Trojan horse in the gambling and gaming industry’s creeping and creepy embrace of football.

And that isn’t funny at all.

But the targets were our wallets and spending habits, not our hearts. The increase was three-fold for children aged 4-15.

All this in a sport grappling with the increasing danger of gambling-related match-fixing and with ample examples of gambling-addicted players who frittered away their wealth.

___

And how about this blurb from Sky Bet, title sponsor since 2013 of England’s three divisions below the Premier League

Racy Vietnamese cafes targeted by Calif. city

Some coffeehouses had six or eight arcade games running, and crime was on the rise, Nightengale said.

Officers plan to make rounds of the 37 Vietnamese cafes in the suburban city of Garden Grove to ensure they don’t have arcade games that have been rigged to let patrons bet on blackjack and roulette, and that scantily clad waitresses leave something to the imagination.

Orange County is home to the biggest Vietnamese immigrant community in the country, with sizable enclaves in Garden Grove and surrounding cities.

“We just serve coffee, wear bikinis, like Hooters,” Tran said. “I don’t know how long we can survive like this — with no money and losing customers.”

© 2011 The Associated Press. All Rights Reserved.

“When you’re running illegal gaming and further complicating the issue by having a quasi-strip bar …

GARDEN GROVE, Calif. What began more than a decade ago with waitresses in skimpy outfits morphed into nudity. “Starbucks is boring.”

Between January 2010 and May 2011, police received reports of three robberies, four assaults with a deadly weapon, and seven drug-related incidents at coffeehouses — a far cry from the tranquility at the city’s more traditional cafes, Nightengale said.

. Jeff Nightengale said.

The crackdown comes after authorities reported crime was on the rise outside coffeehouses.

“It’s a stimulating environment,” said Nguyen, of nearby Irvine. And patrons are being urged to smoke outside.

The Garden Grove City Council recently passed new rules to ban arcade games, darkly tinted windows and nudity at cafes. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed. Coffeehouses will be fined $1,000 for each violation.

One of them was Mike Nguyen, a 53-year-old day trader who said he doesn’t mind the thick stench of cigarette smoke and wishes authorities would ease up on the coffeehouse that has become his virtual office and escape from the cookie-cutter Southern California suburb where he lives.

The dimly lit coffeehouse in the heart of Orange County’s Little Saigon hopes to get a passing grade when police start enforcing a host of new rules to crack down on illegal gambling and nudity at some cafes starting as soon as this weekend.

On a recent weekday afternoon, a dozen loyal patrons converged at Cafe Miss Cutie to play Chinese chess, watch European soccer on flat screen TVs and sip iced coffee served by a waitress in a see-through lavender negligee.

Do, whose small cafe is brightly lit, said she relies on loyal, older patrons to stay afloat. But with the new restrictions, she fears her customers may venture over to coffeehouses in nearby cities where there are fewer limits.

“They say if it’s just to drink coffee, then I’ll stay home and drink coffee,” said Thuy Do, owner of Cafe Chichi in Garden Grove.

Tucked into strip malls featuring McDonald’s and Subway restaurants, the coffeehouses cater to men toting laptops to take advantage of free wireless access, who are meeting business partners or who are getting together with friends to play cards, watch sports and flirt with waitresses who pour iced drinks.

Video: Steamed over bikini baristas

“Now it is a little boring to just come and drink coffee and read the paper,” she said.

Business has fallen at many of the cafes since police started the crackdown — above all on the arcade games that lured customers off their couches and got them to linger longer at the coffeehouses.

In March, authorities arrested 23 people at coffeehouses in Garden Grove and Westminster for investigation of illegal gaming and seized more than 180 machines and more than $145,000 in cash, Garden Grove police said.

At Cafe Miss Cutie, sales have been halved since police began making rounds several months ago, manager Tuyen Tran said.

Quynh Ly, 23 and a waitress at Cafe Lu in Santa Ana, Calif., serves customers at the popular coffee house May 19, 2009.

AP Photo/Orange County Register

But authorities in Garden Grove — a city of 170,000 people about 30 miles southeast of Los Angeles — said cafes have gotten out of control. – At Cafe Miss Cutie, the windows are tinted but not pitch black. The waitresses are wearing negligees but not naked. you’re attracting a different crowd than guys just going in there to have a cup of coffee,” Garden Grove police spokesman Lt